Haryana (IPA: [??r??ja??a?]), carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1 November 1966 on linguistic basis, is one of the 29 states in India. Situated in North India with less than 1.4% (44,212 km2 (17,070 sq mi)) of India's land area, it is ranked 21st in terms of area. Chandigarh is the capital, Faridabad in National Capital Region is the most populous city of the state and the Gurugram is the financial hub of NCR with major Fortune 500 companies located in it. Haryana has 6 administrative divisions, 22 districts, 72 sub-divisions, 93 revenue tehsils, 50 sub-tehsils, 140 community development blocks, 154 cities and towns, 6,841 villages and 6212 villages panchayats.
As the largest recipient of investment per capita since 2000 in India, and among one of the wealthiest and most economically developed regions in South Asia, Haryana has the sixth highest per capita income among Indian states and union territories at ?180,174 (US$2,800) against the national average of ?112,432 (US$1,700) for year 2016–17. Haryana's 2017-18 estimated state GSDP of US$95 billion (52% services, 30% industries and 18% agriculture) is growing at 12.96% 2012-17 CAGR and placed on the 14th position behind only much bigger states, is also boosted by 30 SEZs (mainly along DMIC, ADKIC and DWPE in NCR), 7% national agricultural exports, 60% of national Basmati rice export, 67% cars, 60% motorbikes, 50% tractors and 50% refrigerators produced in India. Faridabad has been described as eighth fastest growing city in the world and third most in India by City Mayors Foundation survey. In services, Gurugram ranks number 1 in India in IT growth rate and existing technology infrastructure, and number 2 in startup ecosystem, innovation and livability (Nov 2016).
Among the world's oldest and largest ancient civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilization sites at Rakhigarhi village in Hisar district and Bhirrana in Fatehabad district are 9,000 years old. Rich in history, monuments, heritage, flora and fauna, human resources and tourism with well developed economy, national highways and state roads, it is bordered by Himachal Pradesh to the north-east, by river Yamuna along its eastern border with Uttar Pradesh, by Rajasthan to the west and south, and Ghaggar-Hakra River flows along its northern border with Punjab. Since Haryana surrounds the country's capital Delhi on three sides (north, west and south), consequently a large area of Haryana is included in the economically-important National Capital Region for the purposes of planning and development.
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