Hesse () or Hessia (German: Hessen [?h?sn?], Hessian dialect: Hesse [?h?z?]) is a federal state (Land) of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants. The state capital is Wiesbaden; the largest city is Frankfurt am Main. Until the unification of Germany, the territory of Hesse was occupied by the Grand Duchy of Hesse, the Duchy of Nassau, the free city of Frankfurt and the Electorate of Hesse, known also as Hesse-Cassel. Due to divisions after World War II, the modern federal state does not cover the entire cultural region of Hesse, which includes both the State of Hesse and the area known as Rhenish Hesse (Rheinhessen) in the neighbouring state of Rhineland-Palatinate.
The English name "Hesse" originates in the Hessian dialects. The variant "Hessia" comes from medieval Latin Hassia. The German term Hessen is used by the European Commission because their policy is to leave regional names untranslated (paragraphs 1.31 and 1.35). The term "Hesse" ultimately derives from a Germanic tribe called the Chatti. An inhabitant of Hesse is called a "Hessian" (German: Hesse (masculine) or Hessin (feminine)). The synthetic element hassium, number 108 on the periodic table, is named after the state of Hesse.
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